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A program is outputted with Segmentation fault. What is the cause which carries out an abnormal end?

It is a bug about to use a memory as a certain cause well.
It is reference what is called arrangement outside. 
As a solution, we recommend you the check of memory access with a tool called valgrind. 

1. Re-compile of a program 
 A debugging option is validated and is re-compiled. 
 In the case of the Intel compiler 

icc -g -O0 test.c -o test

Please attach  "-g -O0"  is no optimizes.
The case of gcc is also the appearance,

gcc -g -O0 test.c -o test

2. The check by valgrind
The compiled program is run as follows using valgrid. 

valgrind ./test (options)

valgrind runs the given program,checking a memory error.
Although execution time becomes late, it detects and displays bad reference etc. 
If all the displayed error parts are corrected, the error of memory access can be lost. 
Execution time becomes long sharply from old.